International Journal of Plant & Soil Science <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Plant &amp; Soil Science (ISSN: 2320-7035)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/IJPSS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Plant &amp; Soil Science research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (International Journal of Plant & Soil Science) (International Journal of Plant & Soil Science) Mon, 11 Oct 2021 11:10:43 +0000 OJS 60 Effect of Organic Nutrients and Growth Regulators on Yield and Quality of Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L) <p>An Investigation was conducted to study the effect of organic inputs and growth regulators on yield and quality of goldenrod (<em>Solidago canadensis</em>) was conducted at the floricultural unit, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University during 2018. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with twelve treatments, various organic inputs and growth regulators including panchagavya @ 3%, vermiwash 1:5 dilutions, humic acid @ 0.2%, GA<sub>3 </sub>@ 250 ppm, NAA @ 250 ppm were applied. The yield and quality characters were studied at different stages. The observations recorded viz., yield of flower stalks/ha, days to first flowering, length of flower stalks and weight of individual flower stalks. The&nbsp; results revealed that plants treated with NAA @ 250 ppm + panchagavya @ 3% (T<sub>9</sub>) was observed highest flower stalk yield (1140.02 flower stalks/ha), No. of flower stalks/plant (24.48), weight of individual flower stalks, days to first flowering. Considering the overall performance, it was found that the plants treated with NAA @ 250ppm + Panchagavya @ 3% recorded better performance with regard to growth, yield and quality characters.</p> Y. Angel, A. Vignesh Kumar, S. Abinaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 14 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Various Sources of Seed Priming on Growth, Yield and Quality of Spinach Local (Spinacia oleracea) in-vitro and in-vivo Condition <p>Seed germination, following seedling growth are basic but crucial steps in a plant life cycle which includes proper seed germination which is a basic pre-requisite for a better crop growth and yield. The experiment was conducted in Vegetable Science Department under the Defence Institute of Bio-Energy and Research (DIBER), (DRDO), Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand in the year 2020-2021 to standardize the best treatment of seed priming specific to Spinach (<em>Spinacia oleracea)</em>. An investigation was conducted both in a laboratory and on the field with the same treatment that was: (T1) Distilled water, (T2) 1%NaCl, (T3) 1%H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, (T4) 1%Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub>, (T5) Tap water, (T6) 1%DAP, (T7) Control. Seeds were soaked for 16 hrs and then dried to original moisture content for 2 days. It was found that all the priming treatments showed a significant difference with the control and the highest germination %(lab) with 71% was observed in seeds treated with DAP (T6) and the highest crop yield (field) were observed for 1% Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub>. Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub> showed the best result in the field as well as in lab conditions based on different quality parameters followed by DAP. This study showed that seed priming treatments help in the enhancement of seed quality parameters, proved cost-effective and the most economical method. The experiment helps to improve the seed quality using different priming treatments which are cost-effective, economic, environment friendly and one of the quickest methods used for seed enhancement.</p> Bela Joshi, P. K. Rai, Vandana Pandey ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 11 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Nitrogen Levels on Forage Yield and Quality of Multi Cuts Oat Cultivars <p>A field experiment was conducted at Main Forage Research Station, Anand Agricultural University, Anand during rabi-2019-20 to study the effect of nitrogen levels on yield and quality of multi cut oat cultivars with aim to find out nitrogen levels on green fodder yield and quality of oat. There were total four varieties (<strong>V<sub>1</sub></strong>: OL 1874, <strong>V<sub>2</sub></strong>: JO-05-304, <strong>V<sub>3</sub></strong>: UPO 212 and <strong>V<sub>4</sub></strong>: RO 19) and four levels of nitrogen (<strong>N<sub>1</sub></strong>: 35 kg N/ha, <strong>N<sub>2</sub></strong>: 70 kg N/ha, <strong>N<sub>3</sub></strong>: 105 kg N/ha and <strong>N<sub>4</sub></strong>: 140 kg N/ha) was tested. Experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. Experiments results revealed that significantly the highest green fodder yield was reported in RO 19 (V<sub>4</sub>) treatment, while average plant height and average number of tiller per meter row length were reported in V<sub>1</sub>: OL 1874 and V<sub>2</sub>: JO 05-304 treatment, respectively. Average plant height, Green fodder yield, average dry matter, average crude protein, total crude protein yield and dry matter yield were found highest by application of 140 kg N/ha. Average tiller per meter row length was higher in N<sub>4</sub> (140 kg N/ha) and average dry matter was higher in N<sub>1</sub> (35 kg N/ha). Response of nitrogen non-significant in case of average ADF and NDF content.</p> H. K. Patel, P. H. Rathod, D. R. Padheriya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 12 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization of Identified Distinct Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) Genotypes for Yield-related Morphological Traits in Karnataka <p>A monotypic genus crop tamarind is one of the important grown in India. The multipurpose tree comprises multiuse in cuisine preparation to medicine. All the parts of the tree have been used in many industries. The present study was conducted to assess the quantum of diversity in seventeen morphological traits of identified distinct 96 tamarind genotypes collected from 30 districts of Karnataka during 2018-19 at College of Horticulture, Bengaluru. The morphological traits including fruit yield/plant were observed. Among major yield attributing morphological traits <em>viz.,</em> fruit weight ranged from 4.27-32.45 g, pulp weight ranged from 2.10-15.00 g and fruit yield/plant ranged from 49.50 to 298.50 kg. The genetic variation components <em>viz</em>., PCV ranged from 13.93 to 48.25 while GCV ranged from 12.22 to 47.28. The high heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent over mean was observed in the traits such as fruit weight (96%, 91.20%) and seed weight (96%, 95.45%) while moderate heritability and genetic advance as per cent over mean was revealed in fruit yield/plant (78.00 %, 55.83 %). Present study brought out and identified three top best performing tamarind genotypes TAM_KOL4, TAM_BEN(U)3 and TAM_BEN(U)4 expressed higher yield over the check GKVK17 recorded third highest fruit yield/plant but however it was not significant. The selection based on yield related traits and best performing genotypes in terms of fruit yield/plant could be effectively used in tamarind breeding programme.</p> M. N. Mamathashree, B. G. Prakash, B. Fakrudin, U. Jayashree, M. K. Honnabyraiah, A. P. Mallikarjungowda ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 12 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Seed Priming Treatments with Panchagavya, Jeevamrutha, Beejamrutha and Leaf Extracts, Sodium Molybdate on Seed Quality Parameters of Field Pea (Pisum sativum) <p>The present research study was conducted at the Seed testing laboratory of Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh in 2020-2021. The research study revealedthat effect of seed priming treatments with Panchagavya, Jeevamrutha, Beejamrutha and leaf extracts, Sodium molybdate on seed quality parameters of field pea was analyzed through Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Organic treatments are designated as Panchagavya 3% and 5%, Jeevamrutha 3% and 5%, Beejamrutha 5% are used as treatment 8Hrs respectively, botanical treatments are Tulasi leaf extract 6%, Lantana camara leaf extract for 6% are used as treatment for duration of 4 hours respectivelyin which the treatment T8- Sodium molybdate (3%) for 3 Hrs exhibited higher mean value for seed germination (76.75%), root length (6.49 cm), shoot length (7.84 cm), seedling length (14.33 cm), seed vigour index -I (1099.68) and Followed by value was exhibited by T6-Tulasi Leaf Extract (6%) with respect of Root length (6.79 cm)Seedling dry weight (1.725 g), Seed Vigour Index II (129.78), T0 (control) with respect of Germination percentage (71.75%) root length (6.30 cm), shoot length (6.60 cm) and seedling length (12.90 cm), seed vigour index I &amp;II (925.60 &amp; 98.13).</p> K. Yashwanth Chandra, Arun Kumar Chaurasia ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 13 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Response of Organic Manures, Inorganic Fertilizers and Bio-fertilizers on Qualitative and Quantitative Parameters of Onion (Allium cepa L.) <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To find out the response of combined use of organic, inorganic and bio-fertilizers of nutrients on quality of small onion Aggregatum cv. Thengaithittu.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>The experiment was laid out in randomized block design 9 treatment combinations with three replications.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The experiment was conducted for two seasons at Adhiparasakthi Horticultural College farm situated at 12°15’N and 78° 20’E longitude, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India during the year 2014-2015.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The treatments comprised of organic manures, inorganic fertilizer and bio-fertilizers with nine treatments viz., T<sub>1</sub>: NPK (60:60:30 kg/ha.), T<sub>2</sub>: Farm yard manure (FYM) (25t/ha.), T<sub>3</sub>: FYM (25t/ha.) + NPK (60:60:30 kg/ha.), T<sub>4</sub>: FYM (25t/ha.) +Azospirillum (2kg/ha.)+ NPK (30:30:15 kg/ha.), T<sub>5</sub>: FYM (25t/ha.) + Phosphobacteria (2kg/ha.) +NPK (60:30:30 kg/ha.), T<sub>6</sub>: FYM (25t/ha.) + Azospirillum (2kg/ha.) + Phosphobacteria (2kg/ha.) +NPK (30:30:15 kg/ha.), T<sub>7</sub>: FYM (25t/ha.)+NPK (60:60:30 kg/ha.) + gypsum (50kg/ha.),&nbsp; T<sub>8</sub>: FYM (25t/ha.) + Azospirillum (2kg/ha.) + Phosphobacteria (2kg/ha.) +NPK (30:30:15 kg/ha.) +gypsum (50 kg/ha.) and T<sub>9</sub>: FYM (25 kg/ha.) + gypsum (50 kg/ha.).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The combined application of N, P, K, FYM, Azospirillum, phosphobacteria and gypsum significantly influenced the total soluble solids (15.77B°), ascorbic acid (14.76 mg/100g) and total sugars (14.72%) contents. The combined application of organic manures, inorganic and bio-fertilizers may be recommended to farmers to get good quality onion.</p> S. Nantha kumar, S. Ramanathan, M. Paramasivam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 13 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Nitrogen on Yield, Microbial Load and Soil Nutrient Status of Pearl Millet <p>Soil microbial population and soil nutrient status are important criteria for improving the yields. So this study is conducted with an objective to know the impact of organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen on yield, soil microbial load and nutrient status of the soil in pearl millet. A field experiment was conducted during <em>kharif,</em> 2019 at Agricultural College Farm, Bapatla on sandy soils with eight treatments consisting combined organic and inorganic nitrogen sources. The highest grain yield (2955 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), straw (5867 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) yield and soil nitrogen status (164.10 kg ha <sup>-1</sup>) were recorded with 75% Soil Test Based Nitrogen (STBN) + 25% vermicompost + <em>Azospirillum</em> @ 5 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>and was followed by statistically similar treatment 100% STBN + <em>Azospirillum </em>@ 5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. Significantly higher microbial load (Bacteria, Fungi and Actinomycetes), P and K status in soil recorded with the treatments where 50% of STBN applied through FYM (50% STBN + 50% FYM + <em>Azospirillum</em> @ 5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), whereas lowest was recorded with chemical fertilizer alone. The combined sources of nitrogen both organic and inorganic fertilizers would be able to improve soil fertility and soil microbial load and finally improve the yields.</p> Tharapureddi Bhargavi, K. Mosha, M. Martin Luther, P. Venkata Subbaiah, N. Swetha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Crop and Soil Dynamics under Various Moisture Regimes and Moisture Conservation Techniques in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The present investigation was conducted to validate the various moisture regimes in transplanted rice and to study the effect of different moisture conservation techniques on performance of rice and soil after harvest of crop.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Experiment was laid out in split plot design (SPD).</p> <p><strong>Place and duration of Study: </strong>The present investigation was conducted during the <em>kharif</em> season of 2018 and 2019 at the Crop Research Centre of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture &amp; Technology, Meerut (U.P.), India.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The main factor consists of the moisture regimes <em>viz.</em> irrigation as CF (I<sub>1</sub>), at FC (I<sub>2</sub>) and at 25%DASM (I<sub>3</sub>), the sub factors consist of six moisture conservation techniques <em>viz. </em>control, application of wheat residues @ 5t/ha, Pusa hydrogel @7.5 kg/ha, seed treatment with PF-6, PF-2 and IRRI-1 @ 4g/kg seed. Observation on plant growth attributes <em>viz</em>., plant height and leaf area index were recorded at 30, 60 DAT and at harvest stage of the crop, while chlorophyll content was recorded at 30 and 60 DAT. The harvest index was calculated on the net plot area basis. Observation on soil dynamics <em>viz</em>., available NPK and OC were recorded both before and after harvesting of crop.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among different moisture regimes, the highest plant height, LAI and chlorophyll content was found under CF (I<sub>1</sub>) followed by FC (I<sub>2</sub>) during both the years. Among MCTs, the highest values of growth attributes and harvest index of rice were found with application of wheat residue @ 5 t/ha followed by Pusa hydrogel @ 7.5 kg/ha during both the years. Maximum value of harvest index was recorded under CF during first year, while it was highest under FC during 2019. Slight improvement in available nutrients were observed at 25% DASM treatment of moisture regimes and wheat residues @ 5 t/ha treatment of moisture conservation techniques over their other counterparts during both the years of experimentation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>On the basis of study, it may be concluded that irrigation should be scheduled at FC (2-3 days after disappearance of water on surface) in transplanted rice and application of wheat residues @ 5 t/ha in rice is an appropriate moisture conservation technique for improving the physiological growth and productivity, besides enhancing the soil fertility.</p> Deepak Kumar, Adesh Singh, . Vivek, Mukesh Kumar, U. P. Shahi, Ramji Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Yield and Nutrient Uptake of Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.)] as Influenced by Tillage, Nutrient Levels and Foliar Sprays <p>A field investigation was conducted during two consecutive<em> kharif</em> seasons of 2019-20 and 2020-21 to study the effect of tillage, nutrient levels and foliar sprays on yield and nutrient uptake of redgram on sandy loam soil which was low in available nitrogen, medium in available phosphorus and available potassium. The research was conducted in a split-split plot design, consisting of three tillage practices in main plots, three nutrient levels in sub-plots and three foliar sprays in sub-sub plots. Higher seed yield and nutrient uptake of redgram was recorded with vertical tillage with subsoiler upto 60 cm deep at 1 m interval with application of 125 % RDF and with foliar application of KNO<sub>3</sub> 1 % twice with 15 days interval at 50 per cent&nbsp; flowering stage.</p> Gurrala Suresh, A. V. Nagavani, V. Sumathi, T. Giridhara Krishna, P. Sudhakar, G. Karuna Sagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Synergistic Influence of Bio-Fertilizers, Growth Regulator and Micronutrients on Yield and Economics of Sapota cv. Kalipatti <p>An experiment laid down to evaluate the effect of biofertilizers, growth regulator gibbralic acid (GA<sub>3</sub>) and micronutrients on yield and yield attributes of Sapota cv. Kalipatti at Fruit Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Gandevi, Gujarat. The treatments of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), <em>i.e.</em>100 kg FYM and 1000:500:500 g/plant NPK along with application of biofertilizers (<em>Azospirillum</em> + PSB), growth regulator (GA<sub>3</sub>) and micronutrients. The pooled results of&nbsp; 75% RDF + biofertilizers- <em>Azospirillum</em> + PSB @ 40 ml/tree + GA<sub>3</sub> @ 50 ppm + Grade 4 (micronutrient @ 0.5%) were exhibited significantly higher number of fruit (2815.45), yield (20.61 t/ha)along with net return (Rs. 3,03,951/ha) and Benefit Cost Ratio (2.81). The said application enhanced fruit yield up to 43.41% over control comprising RDF only. However, significantly higher fruit weight (81.34 g) was recorded in application of 100% RDF + biofertilizers- <em>Azospirillum</em> + PSB @ 40ml/tree + GA<sub>3</sub> @ 50 ppm + Grade-4 (micronutrient @ 0.5%).</p> P. K. Modi, A. P. Patel, A. R. Patel, A. N. Patel, T. R. Ahir, K. D. Bisane, B. M. Naik ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Response of Hybrid Tomato (Solanum lycopersiucm L) for Calcium Nutrition: Growth, Root Traits and SPAD Index <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To evaluate the effect of various sources and levels of calcium fertilisation in improving the growth and SPAD index of hybrid tomato at different growth stages.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Factorial randomized block design (FRBD) with three replications.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> A field experiment was conducted in the farmer’s field at Devarayapuram village, Thondamuthur block, Coimbatore from January to April, 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A field experiment was conducted with hybrid tomato <em>(Solanum lycopersiucm L)</em> Shivam by using various organic and inorganic calcium sources viz., calcium sulphate, calcium nitrate, calcium silicate, poultry manure and pressmud applied at different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 kg Ca ha<sup>-1</sup>) in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. The growth parameters such as plant height, root length, lateral root length, root volume and SPAD index were recorded as per standard protocols at different plant growth stages.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A linear increase in the plant growth, root traits and SPAD index of hybrid tomato was noted by the addition of organic and inorganic sources of calcium and the highest values were observed with the application of 80 kg Ca ha<sup>-1</sup>. Higher plant height (93.8 cm), root length (16.8 cm), lateral root length (13.3 g cc<sup>-1</sup>) and SPAD index (62.0) was registered with poultry manure applied at 80 kg Ca ha<sup>-1</sup> which was followed by pressmud applied at the same level. Skipping of calcium in the fertiliser schedule registered the lowest growth response of hybrid tomato at all the growth stages.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Inorganic Ca fertiliser sources though improved the growth, root traits and SPAD index of hybrid tomato at different growth stages, and it was comparatively lesser than the organic sources such as poultry manure and pressmud as calcium sources. The order of better growth performance was: Poultry manure &gt; Pressmud &gt; Ca silicate &gt; Ca Nitrate &gt; Ca sulphate. The lowest values of all the growth attributes were noted with NPK control. It was concluded that application of poultry manure at 80 kg Ca ha<sup>-1 </sup>would be effective in improving the growth, root traits and SPAD index of hybrid tomato.</p> S. Salma Santhosh, T. Chitdeshwari, D. Jegadeeswari, C. Kavitha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Studies on Seed Dormancy Breaking in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Variety Poinsett <p>Experiments were carried out to study the effect of chemicals in breaking the dormancy of cucumber. The study was conducted at the Department of Vegetable Science, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore during 2017-2018. The seeds of cucumber variety Poinsett were treated with various chemicals immediately after harvest to standardize the best dormancy breaking treatment. The design of the experiment was Factorial Randomised Block Design with two replications. The seeds were treated with the chemicals for 12 hrs and 24 hours duration. The germination test was conducted. Observations on seed and seedling quality parameters <em>viz</em>., speed of germination, and germination percent, vigor index I and vigor index II were recorded. At 12 hours duration, the highest speed of germination (23.29) was recorded in T<sub>2</sub> (GA<sub>3</sub>150 ppm) whereas the highest germination percentage (92) was recorded in T<sub>8</sub> (Ethrel150 ppm). At 24 hours duration, the highest speed of germination (30.77) and the highest germination percentage (86) was observed in T<sub>12 </sub>(KNO<sub>3</sub>500 ppm). At 12 hours duration, the highest Vigor Index I (2800.16) was recorded in T<sub>9 </sub>(Ethrel 500 ppm) while the vigor Index II was the highest (12.19) in T<sub>8 </sub>(Ethrel150 ppm). At 24 hours duration, the highest Vigor Index I (2349.28) was observed in T<sub>10 </sub>(Ethrel 1000 ppm) while the vigor Index II was the highest (14.066) in T<sub>11 </sub>(KNO<sub>3</sub>150 ppm).</p> H. Usha Nandhini Devi, J. Renugadevi, V. Rajasree, L. Pugalendhi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 19 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation and Path Analysis Studies on Yield and Yield Components in Musk Melon (Cucumis melo L.) <p><strong>Problem: </strong>The correlation co-efficient indicates the nature of association among the different traits, path analysis splits the correlation co-efficient into measure of direct and indirect effects thus providing understanding of the direct and indirect association of each character towards yield.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> An experiment on correlation and path analysis involving thirty F<sub>1</sub> and six parents in muskmelon (<em>Cucumis melo</em> L.) was carried out at Department of Horticulture, Adhiparasakthi Agricultural College, Kalavai, Vellore district, Tamil Nadu India.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The fruit yield per plant had exhibited highly significant and positive correlation with individual fruit weight (0.845), fruit diameter (0.656), fruit length (0.536) and flesh thickness (0.503). Path coefficient analysis revealed that the characters <em>viz.,</em> fruit weight exerted the highest positive direct effect (1.034) on fruit yield per vine followed by number of fruits per vine (0.497), days to first female flower anthesis (0.088), vine length (0.072) and fruit length (0.070).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The fruit yield per plant can be improved by making selection of these traits in yield improvement programme.</p> S. Nanthakumar, R. S. Sankar, D. Rameshkumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 19 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Optimization of Spray Fluid for Herbicide Application for Drones in Irrigated Maize (Zea mays L.) <p>A field experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design to screen the optimum spray fluid of herbicide application for drone based on visual toxicity and weed control efficiency in maize (<em>Zea mays </em>L.) during the <em>summer </em>season (March 2021) at eastern block farms of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. Three herbicide treatments namely Atrazine, Tembotrione and 2, 4-D with recommended dosages, 75% and 125% as pre-emergence herbicides applied on 3 days after, early post-emergence herbicides applied on 15 days after sowing and post-emergence applied on 25 days after sowing respectively. Totally thirty treatments with different spray fluids such as 500, 400, 300, 200, 100, 80, 60, 40, 30 L ha-1 and 20 L ha-1 were replicated three times. The study revealed that T5- Recommended dosage of pre emergence Atrazine – early post emergence Tembotrione – post emergence 2, 4-D (spray fluid 100 L of water ha-1),T6- Recommended dosage of pre emergence Atrazine – early post emergence Tembotrione–post emergence 2, 4-D (spray fluid 80 L of water ha-1), T7- Recommended dosage of pre emergence Atrazine – early post emergence Tembotrione – post emergence 2, 4-D (spray fluid 60 L of water ha-1) and T8- Recommended dosage of pre emergence Atrazine – early post emergence Tembotrione – post emergence 2, 4-D (spray fluid 40 L of water ha-1) produced the best results with respect to phytotoxicity and weed control efficiency. Based on the results it was concluded that the application of spray fluid 80 L ha-1 was optimum for herbicide application through drones with recommended dosage pre emergence Atrazine 1 kg a.i ha-1 on 3 days after sowing – early post emergence Tembotrione 120 g a.i ha-1 on 15-20 days after sowing - post emergence 2, 4-D 1 kg a.i ha-1 on 30 - 35 days after sowing.</p> C. Supriya, P. MuraliArthanari, R. Kumaraperumal, A. P. Sivamurugan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 19 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of Kharif Maize (Zea mays L.) with Integrated Nutrient Application <p>An experiment was conducted on “Performance of <em>Kharif</em> maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) with integrated nutrient application” during <em>Kharif</em> 2017, on Soil Conservation and Water Management Farm, CSA University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur on hybrid Maize with three level of inorganic fertilizers (kg/ha) <em>i.e</em>.100% R.D.F. (100 N + 60 P + 40 K+ 20 Z), 75% RDF (75+45+30+15), &amp;&nbsp; 50% RDF (50+30+20+10) along with three Levels of organic manure viz; 15, 20 &amp; 25&nbsp; ton FYM/ha. On the basis of overall results it can be concluded that the fertility level 75% RDF + 25 t FYM/ha (F<sub>2</sub>+O<sub>3</sub>) was found superior over all other treatment combinations of fertility management maximum yield of grain (26.47 q/ha), stover (89.01 q/ha) and water use efficiency is 9.76 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> mm<sup>-1</sup>. The treatment combination F<sub>2</sub>+O<sub>3</sub> (75% RDF + 25 t FYM/ha) is very suitable among over all treatments.</p> Gaurav Pratap Singh, Munish Kumar, Pradeep Kumar, Balwant Singh, Hanuman Prasad Pandey, S. B. Pandey ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Standardization of Varied Sowing Windows and Nitrogen Levels for Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) under Rainfed Conditions of Tamil Nadu <p>A field experiment was conducted during k<em>harif-</em>2017 at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai in a factorial randomized block design. The present research was designed by nine treatment combinations considering three dates of sowing D<sub>1</sub>: II fortnight of June, D<sub>2 </sub>: I fortnight of July and D<sub>3 </sub>: II fortnight of July and three nitrogen levels N<sub>1</sub>: RDN (80 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), N<sub>2 </sub>: 75% RDN (60 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and N<sub>3 </sub>: 125% RDN (100 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) to study the growth and yield components of pearlmillet grown with variety CO (Cu) 10. The crop sown on I fortnight of July with 125 % RDN recorded maximum growth parameters, yield components and recorded significantly highest grain yield. The lowest was recorded in crop sown on II fortnight of July with application of 75% RDN.</p> M. Ramanjineyulu, V. K. Paulpandi, V. Geethalakshmi, C. Vanniarajan, N. S. Venkataraman, J. Prabhaharan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Availability of N, P, K and Their Relationship between Organic Carbon under Sugarcane-Ratoon- Wheat Cropping System in Western Uttar Pradesh Provinces, India <p>A study was conducted in the Meerut district of western Uttar Pradesh to evaluate the Soil characterization of sugarcane- ratoon- wheat cropping system<strong>. </strong>The soil samples were analyzed for various parameters in the laboratory. The status of available NPK in soils and other soil properties like pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and organic carbon (OC) content were assessed. Results reveal that the soils of the study area were sandy loam in texture, slightly alkaline in reaction and non-saline in nature. Nutrient status regarding available nitrogen is low in surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) soil while phosphorous and potassium low to medium in ranged at surface and subsurface also show that the availability of nutrient is decline gradually with increasing soil depth. A positively significant correlation of N, P, and K with organic carbon content was found.</p> Vipin Kumar, Satendra Kumar, R. I. Navsare, Akansha Singh, Pragati Kumar Maurya, B. P. Dhyani, U. P. Shahi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 22 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Response of Gas Exchange Activity and Relative Water Content of Neem in Relation to Weather <p>Neem is known for its medicinal values and is a hardy plant that can grow in a wide variety of environmental conditions. However, productivity is impacted by unfavourable weather conditions due to different geographical locations. The present study was conducted to study the influence of prevailing weather conditions on certain physiological parameters deciding the reproductive ability of neem trees. The study was conducted in two different locations at different agro-climatic regions of Tamil Nadu, India. Gas exchange parameters like photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and leaf temperature and relative water content during pre-flowering, flowering and post-flowering stages were measured and correlated with temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed observed from the corresponding location. In both locations, the neem trees recorded significantly higher values for these physiological parameters during the pre-flowering and fruiting stages compared to the flowering stage. The trees with higher Diameter and breast height (DBH) showed higher values for gas exchange parameters compared to the trees with lower DBH.</p> K. Pugazenthi, V. Geethalakshmi, A. Senthil, K. Kumaran, S. Umesh Kanna ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 22 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Nutrient and Weed Management Practices on Weed Dynamics and Productivity of Aromatic Rice in Semi-arid Region of Bihar <p>A field experiment was conducted during <em>kharif </em>season of 2017 at Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur (Bihar) to investigate the “Effect of nutrient and weed management practices on weed dynamics and productivity of aromatic rice’’. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design and was replicated thrice. The treatments comprised three nutrient levels <em>viz</em>., N1= 100% RDF; N2=75% RDF + FYM 5 t/ha<strong>; </strong>N3=50% RDF + FYM 10 t/ha in main-plot, and six weed management practices <em>viz</em>., W1 = Brown manuring; W2= Bispyribac- sodium @ 25 g/ha as post emergence; W3= Chlorimuron ethyl + Metsulfuron methyl (Almix) @ 4 g/ha at 20 days after transplanting (DAT); W4= Pyrazosulfuron @ 25 g/ha; W5=Weed free; W6= Weedy check in sub-plot. The results revealed that treatment N1 recordedthe maximum- recorded the grain yield of rice. Among weed management practices, treatment W5 recorded the maximum grain yield of rice. Weed population and weed dry matter were found maximum in N3. Weed control efficiency and weed index was the maximum in W5 and W6 respectively. Thus, it may be concluded that the nutrient level N1 is superior to N2 &amp; N3. Secondly, high cost involved in manual weeding makes herbicidal treatments more viable proposition. The weed management practice W2 is a most effective for transplanted aromatic rice.</p> Shashimala Kumari, Vinay Kumar, Vijay Kumar, Shashidhar Yadav, Santosh Kumar Singh, Rajan Kumar, Ravi Nandan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation and Acceleration of Municipal Biowaste Compost Production and its Effect on Growth and Yield of Amaranthus <p>To limit the accumulation of municipal solid waste, quick solid waste management techniques are more vital to reuse, reduce, and recycle the Municipal Solid Wastes MSW). A study was conducted to shorten the composting time and assess the degradation efficiency of different micro consumers in Municipal Solid Waste Compost (MSWC) production and followed by a field experiment with Amaranthus as a test crop to evaluate the influence of MSWC on crop yield. Various sources <em>viz.</em>, Saw dust balls impregnated with Panchakavya solution, TNAU Biomineralizer, PUSA decomposer, Effective Microorganisms (EM) solution, RCOF Waste decomposer and Novel microbial consortia were used for rapid production of biowaste compost. The results showed that the PUSA decomposer and EM Solution significantly reduced the period of composting to 35 and 37 days respectively. The nutrient parameters of compost <em>viz</em>., C:N ratio (13:1), total N (3.37%), total P (0.14%) and total K (0.65%) were better in the compost prepared with PUSA decomposer followed by those with EM solution and novel microbial consortia. The bio compost obtained from this study was utilized in the field experiment to assess the biomass production of Amaranthus. Enriched MSWC @ 5t ha<sup>-1 </sup>+ 75% NPK produced greater amount of biomass (27.84 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), in comparison with control which produced 59.7% higher biomass yield. The overall results indicated that proper microbial inoculation of solid biowastes shortened the duration of composting and combined application of municipal biowaste compost with inorganic fertilizers saved 25 percent of fertilizer dosage, improved the soil quality and crop yield thus ensuring ecofriendly disposal of wastes.</p> S. Dharani, B. Bhakiyathu Saliha, S. Suresh, S. Shenbagavalli ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic Diversity for Yield and Its Component Traits in Blackgram (Vigna mungo. L Hepper) <p>Thirty eight genotypes were subjected to genetic divergence by using D<sub>2</sub> statistics. The genotypes were grouped into 7 clusters by D<sub>2</sub> analysis. Cluster I consisted of maximum accessions (32) followed by cluster II, III IV, V, VI, VII consisted of only 1 accession. The inter-cluster distances were greater than intra-cluster distances, revealing that considerable amount of genetic diversity existed among the accessions. Maximum intra cluster distance was observed in cluster I (56.58) indicating that some genetic divergence still existed among the genotypes. This could be made use of in the yield improvement through recombination breeding. Highest mean values exhibited no. of seeds per plant in cluster II (198.97), days to maturity in cluster VII (93.11), harvest index in cluster V (76.15) and plant height in cluster IV (69.59). The character contribution maximum towards diversity among the accessions were seed yield per plant (18.40%), followed by harvest index (14.32%), biological yield (11.98%), no. of pods per plant (10.76%), pod length (9.80%) and no. of seeds per plant (7.56%). These characters combining with early maturity were the major traits causing genetic divergence among the accessions. It was assumed that maximum mount of heterosis will be manifested in cross combinations involving the parents belonging to most divergent clusters.</p> Bairi Pallavi, Gaibriyal M. Lal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Application of Trichoderma viride and Bacillus subtilis Modulates Antioxidant System in Mustard (Brassica juncea) under Water-deficit Stress <p>Water-deficit stress is an important concern worldwide that reduces crop yield and quality.&nbsp;Mustard is an important oilseed crop of India which is adversely affected by water-deficit stress in terms of growth and yield.&nbsp;Tolerance to water-deficit stress is correlated with the redox regulatory and antioxidant system.&nbsp;To mitigate negative effect of water-deficit stress, field experiment was conducted at Dholi (Muzaffarpur), Bihar during 2019-20 with an aim to study the effect of microbes on antioxidant systems in mustard grown under water-deficit stress vis-à-vis normal irrigated conditions. Pre-screened contrasting genotypes (tolerant ‘NPJ 214’ and sensitive ‘TM 179’) were sown in the experimental farm using factorial experiment in randomized block design with three replications. The treatments (12) comprised of two factors <em>viz.,</em> genotypes (2) and microbial inoculants along with control (3) sown under normal ‘irrigated’ and ‘water-deficit stress’ conditions. Soil inoculation microbes <em>Bacillus subtilis </em>and <em>Trichoderma viride </em>was done 35 days after sowing and was compared with non-inoculated control. Results revealed that the activity of antioxidative enzymes <em>viz.,</em> catalase and peroxidase increased under water-deficit stress; the increase was reduced by the application of <em>B. subtilis </em>and <em>T. viride</em> in both tolerant and sensitive genotypes, and more pronounced in the sensitive genotypes. Similar results were recorded with respect to lipid peroxidation and proline content. Increase in concentration of stress-induced metabolites was less in colonized plants of mustard indicating modulation of antioxidant system. The maximum ameliorating effect was observed with application of <em>T. viride </em>which could be an important tool in alleviating the adverse effects of water-deficit stress in mustard.</p> . Kavita, Krishna Mohan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Critical Review on Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) as a Drought Stress Management Tool <p>Water scarcity is known as a major stumbling block towards crop development and its output all over the world. Certain free-living bacterial strains have been found near the plant root zones which have shown to improve resistance of plants towards water stress. Despite availability of basic nutrients, drought an abiotic factor substantially inhibits growth, development and yield of crops by causing an increase in ethylene levels. It is a good idea to incorporate the use of a management tool which is the utilization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to help several crops manage drought conditions. Drought stress in crops can be alleviated by reducing ethylene synthesis, exopolysaccharide, osmoregulation, Indole-3-acetic acid and aggregation with the ACC deaminase-containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Inoculating pathogens like root rot (<em>Macrophomina phaseolina</em>) affected plant with <em>Pseudomonas fluorescens</em> strain TDK1 with ACC deaminase function improves drought stress. Using plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to mitigate the negative imbibes of drought in most crops is a good idea. Several studies have been carried out on plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, as its inoculation not only manages drought related conditions but increases root hair growth and lateral root, which assist in increased water and nutrient uptake. It limits ethylene supply, alternatively increases plant root growth by hydrolyzing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). This review will give us a perspective on the importance of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, as it is one of the efficient tools that helps manage drought stress on several crops.</p> Shamal S. Kumar, Ananta G. Mahale, Md. Mifta Faizullah, J. Radha Krishna, Tharun K. Channa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Boron Application On Growth, Yield Parameters, Nutrient Uptake, Quality and Economics of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.); A Review <p>Groundnut is an important crop cultivated all over world owing to its versatile nature of adaptation to different agro-climatic and soil conditions. In India groundnut gains momentum as an edible oil and India next to food grain. Nutritionally groundnut contains 50 % oil, 25-30 % protein, 20% carbohydrate and 5%fiber. The productivity is lower due to different factors among which nutrient management especially boron that plays pivot role in governing the growth, yield and quality of groundnut. Boron plays various role in the physiological processes of plants, such as cell elongation, cell maturation, meristematic tissue development and protein synthesis, cellular membrane function, reproductive structures and anti- oxidative defence system. It induces flowering, fertilization, hormonal metabolism and translocation of sugars from source to sink. Extensive investigations of research on boron levels were critically reviewed. Application of boron at 10-15 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> of soil application and foliar application of 0.5 percent at critical stage was found to increase the growth and yield attributes, yield, quality as well as higher benefit cost ratio sustaining the livelihood of groundnut growers.</p> P. Ramamoorthy, G. Porkodi, P. Christy Nirmala Mary, B. Bhakiyathu Saliha, A. Sentlilkumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Biofertilizers for Sustainable Production of Strawberry: A-Review <p>Modern-day intensive strawberry cultivation relies on huge application of inorganic fertilizers, which not only disrupt the balance of nature but also reduce the economic efficiency; however, it cannot be eliminated at this time without drastically decreasing its production. Hence, to tackle these problems for sustainable production of crops, bio-fertilizers and organic manures are the best alternatives. The principle of this review is based on the goal of reducing synthetic fertilizers and other chemical input usage in strawberry production. The review discusses the diffuse nature of current reports in the literature concerning microbes as inputs towards a better use efficiency of fertilizers and the possibility of reducing the total amount of fertilizer usage and sustainable and quality strawberry production. Studies with bio-inoculants in combination with inorganic nutrients have proved that some inoculants such as Azotobactor, Azospirillum, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Mycorrhizae fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium can increase the nutrient uptake of strawberry plant and increased fertilizers use efficiency. Biofertilizers in combination with inorganic fertilizers and organic manures have significant impact on plant growth (i.e., state some of the parameters here), yield (i.e., state some of the parameters here) and quality (i.e., state some of the parameters here). Likewise, organic manures improve soil physical conditions and supply all essential macro elements and microelements. These confirmations of concept studies will serve as the basis for vigorous future research into integrated nutrient management in strawberry.</p> G. Chandra Mohan Reddy, M. Santhosh Kumar, N. C. Mamatha, G. Siva Koteswara Rao, P. Chakradhar, G. Vikas Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000