International Journal of Plant & Soil Science http://www.journalijpss.com/index.php/IJPSS <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Plant &amp; Soil Science (ISSN: 2320-7035)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/IJPSS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Plant &amp; Soil Science research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International Journal of Plant & Soil Science 2320-7035 Effect of Different Spacing of Bt and Non Bt Cotton Hybrid on Population of P. gossypiella under High Density Planting http://www.journalijpss.com/index.php/IJPSS/article/view/30276 <p>A field experiment was conducted at Experimental farm of Department of Entomology, Dr. PDKV, Akola, on evaluation of various cotton cultivars against sucking pests under high density planting during kharif 2013 in Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replications. It is evaluated from the study that the higher population of <em>P. gossypiella</em> was harboured on Bt and non Bt cotton hybrid. The population of <em>P. gossypiella</em> larvae was in PKV Hy-2 and RCH-2 BGII was ranging from 0.25 to 1.28 and 0.05 to 0.11, respectively. The lowest mean population of <em>P. gossypiella</em> larvae (0.40) was observed in plant spacing of cotton 120 x 45 cm followed by plant spacing of 90 x 45 cm.</p> P. A. Lahane A. V. Kolhe D. N. Mohod Anurag Khandare ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-19 2020-05-19 1 4 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i530276 NPK Briquette has Positive Effect on Jhum Rice Cultivation http://www.journalijpss.com/index.php/IJPSS/article/view/30277 <p>The study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of NPK briquette for increasing the yield of jhum rice. Two experiments were conducted at Ramery para, Bandarban sadar, Bandarban hill district in Chittagong under the AEZ 29 (Northern and Eastern Hills Tract) during March 2017 to November 2017 to study the effect of NPK briquette on growth and development of Jhum rice. In this experiment, Jhum rice was used as the test crop. The experiment was conducted in two field and designed on Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD). The treatments consisted of 7(seven) levels of NPK briquette i.e. T<sub>1</sub>: Control, T<sub>2</sub>: 100% RFD (267.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), T<sub>3</sub>: 120% RFD (320.8 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), T<sub>4</sub>: 80% RFD (214.1 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), T<sub>5</sub>: 100% NPK briquette (267.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), T<sub>6</sub>: 120% NPK briquette (320.8 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), T<sub>7</sub>: 80% NPK briquette (214.1 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). Ratio in 100 kg NPK briquette contain 50 kg urea: 30 kg TSP: 20 kg MoP and RFD value was N 60 kgha<sup>-1</sup>, P 20 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and K 30 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. The growth and yield of Jhum rice were significantly influenced by different levels of NPK briquette. The highest plant height of jhum rice (138.3 cm), effective tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> (16.03), panicle length (30.10 cm), highest number of filled grain panicle<sup>-1</sup> (202.8), 1000 grain weight (27.67 gm), straw yield (4.13 t/ha) and grain yield (3.54 t/ha) were found from T<sub>5</sub> treatment receiving 100% NPK briquette (267.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and for all cases lowest results were found in T<sub>1</sub> treatment receiving no fertilizer (control). Yield of Jhum rice mainly vary with RFD and NPK briquette but highest yield obtained from NPK briquette treatment compared with control.</p> Md. Zonayet Alok Kumar Paul ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-19 2020-05-19 5 14 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i530277 Effect of Plant Growth Regulators (BA, KIN and NAA) on In vitro Propagation of Papaya (Carica papaya) http://www.journalijpss.com/index.php/IJPSS/article/view/30278 <p>The present research was carried out in Biotechnology Laboratory of the Department of Biotechnology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207 from the period of September 2017 to June 2018. This research aims to study the effect of Benzyladenine (BA), Kinetin (KIN) and Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) either in combination or alone on<em> In vitro</em> propagation of papaya (<em>Carica papaya</em>). The shoot tips of young shoots were used as explant, which was sterilized using freshly prepared 0.1% HgCl<sub>2</sub> mixing with few drops of Tween-20, were inoculated in MS media supplemented with 0.1% activated charcoal. The minimum days to shoot induction (10.25) were recorded on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BA. The highest shoots (4.5) and length of shoot (5.75 cm) observed in 1.0 mg/L BA. The combined treatment 1.0 mg/L BA+0.75 mg/LKIN gave the highest number of shoots (5.25) and length of shoot (5.78 cm).The minimum days (8.5) to root induction was reported in 2.0 mg/L NAA along with maximum 8.25 roots per plantlet. The highest length of root (6.92 cm) was observed in 2.0 mg/L NAA. In regenerated plantlets, 80% survival rates were observed in growth chamber conditions and 75% in the open atmosphere were achieved. Finally, the <em>in vitro </em>regeneration protocol described herein can potentially be used as a tool in molecular breeding programs for the improvement of different cultivars and genotypes of papaya.</p> Nahida Hasan Humayra Huq Fahima Khatun Shamim Ara Sumi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-19 2020-05-19 15 23 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i530278 Impact of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Amended Organic Manure on Arachis hypogaea Growth Response and Rhizosphere Bacterial Community http://www.journalijpss.com/index.php/IJPSS/article/view/30279 <p>The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticle-organic manure amended ultisol and loam soils on plant growth response and rhizosphere bacterial community of peanut (<em>Arachis hypogaea</em>) was evaluated using standard methods under greenhouse conditions. Results indicate germination rates ranged between 30 and 100% in the amended soils compared to 50 and 70% in the controls. ZnO nanoparticles exerted concentration-dependent and varying effects on the plant root and shoot lengths, weights, nodules and pod formation in the two soil types. Heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged from 7.21 ± 0.51 to 7.38 ± 0.5 Log<sub>10</sub>CFUg<sup>-1</sup> in the amended ultisol and 6.99 ± 0.55 Log<sub>10</sub>CFUg<sup>-1 </sup>in the control with a log reduction to 6.70 ± 0.39 Log<sub>10</sub>CFUg<sup>-1 </sup>in 500 mgkg⁻¹ ZnO spiked soil. Counts in the amended loam soil ranged between 6.59 ± 0.48 and 7.22 ± 0.41 Log<sub>10</sub>CFUg<sup>-1</sup> relative to 6.80 ± 0.58 Log<sub>10</sub>CFUg<sup>-1 </sup>in the control. ZnO induced concentration-dependent effect on oxygen uptake rate relative to the controls. The organisms were members of the genera <em>Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Rhizobium, Xanthobacter, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Nitrosomonas and Agromyces. </em>ZnO nanoparticle exerted concentration-dependent stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the plant growth response, oxygen uptake rate and induced temporal shifts in soil microbial abundance. It is challenging to generalize a consistent response of the plant or microorganisms because ZnO nanoparticles interacted with <em>A</em>. <em>hypogaea</em> and soil bacterial community in ways that differ in the ultisol and loam soil.</p> Progress Oghenerume Samuel Eduok Basil Ita Ofonime John Inemesit Basssy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-24 2020-05-24 24 35 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i530279 Comparison of Pomological and Chemical Properties of Autochthonous Pear Varieties with Standard Pear Varieties http://www.journalijpss.com/index.php/IJPSS/article/view/30280 <p>Indigenous fruit varieties are the wealth and natural resource of every country. Their importance is reflected, in addition to economic and biological, through the growing consumer interest in consuming fruits produced without the use of chemicals. Proper and accurate identification and preservation of valuable assortment has resulted in studies of the physicochemical and pomological properties of the fruits of ten pear varieties and their comparison with standard varieties. The usable value of pear fruits is multiple. It is used for liqueurs, vinegar, fruit salads, jams, jam, as dried fruit. The aim of the study is to determine the pomological and chemical properties of indigenous pear varieties and their comparison with standard pear varieties grown in northern Bosnia. The size of the fruit was quite different in the tested varieties and ranged from very small to extremely large fruits with the content of total acids slightly lower than the standard varieties. The research was supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Science as part of a scientific research project entitled "Investigation of phenological and pomological characteristics of indigenous pear varieties in north-eastern Bosnia".</p> Besim Salkić Ramzija Cvrk Emir Imširović Ahmed Salkić Ensar Salkić ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 36 42 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i530280 Compost Derived from Sugar Cane Processing Waste Better Improves Baillonella toxisperma P. Growth in Nkoteng-Cameroon Locality http://www.journalijpss.com/index.php/IJPSS/article/view/30281 <p><strong>Aims:</strong><em> Baillonella toxisperma</em> P. (moabi) is a woody which belongs to Sapotaceae family. It is endemic to the forests of Congo Basin, and therefore to Cameroonian forests. In Cameroon, <em>B. toxiperma</em> undergoes anthropogenic pressure which may lead to its complete disappearance. In this respect, the establishment of an appropriate technical route for regeneration of this species, which becomes rare because of overexploitation, is a necessity. This study aimed to improve the regeneration of moabi while contributing to sustainable agriculture.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>A random device design with 5 treatments (control, compost derived sugar cane processing waste, bagasse, molasses and bagasse-molasses mixture) was used.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Under Bimodal Forest climate in the Central Cameroon region, between September, 2018 and April 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The breaking of moabi seeds dormancy, physico-chemical properties of soil and produced compost, and growth parameters (plant height, foliar production, diameter of stem, and dry biomass of plant) were evaluated to determine the development of the seedlings.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Moabi seeds stored cold at 4°C for 48 hours before sowing germinated better. Compost significantly (p˂0.001) increased moabi plants growth compared to bagasse, molasses, bagasse-molasses mixture. Dry biomass of treated moabi plants by compost, bagasse, bagasse-molasses mixture and molasses were 1.80; 1.13; 1.78; 1.40 fold greater than those of unfertilized plants respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The use of sugar cane compounds works as a double benefit because in addition to using compounds previously discarded, we are adding potent fertilizers that act strongly on moabi growth.</p> Tchuenteu Tatchum Lucien Mounkine Zacharie Megueni Clautilde ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 43 52 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i530281 Effect of Udaipur Rock Phosphate, Single Super Phosphate and Their Combinations on Yield and Total Nutrient Uptake by a Groundnut-Maize Cropping System on the Acid Alfisols of Odisha State, India http://www.journalijpss.com/index.php/IJPSS/article/view/30282 <p>To find out the effect of low grade Udaipur rock phosphate on yield and nutrient dynamic in groundnut- maize cropping system, a field experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with three replications and eight treatments consisting of Udaipur rock phosphate (URP), single super phosphate (SSP) alone or in combinations with different ratios including phosphorus control from 2013-14 to 2015. The soil has a loam texture, a pH of 5.18, low available nitrogen and medium phosphorus and potassium. The highest maize equivalent yield of 6293 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>and relative agronomic efficiency (RAE) of 159% was recorded in SSP+ lime (0.2LR) treatment followed by URP+SSP (1:1). Combined application of SSP+ lime recorded higher P, Ca, Mg and S uptake by groundnut-maize cropping system. When the crops received URP+SSP mixture in 1:1 ratio, the RAE values were increased above the standard SSP treatment (T<sub>3</sub>) being 102% for groundnut, 105% for maize and 103% for groundnut-maize cropping system. The yield in URP+SSP mixture (1:1) was higher than for the SSP treatment, but the difference was not statistically significant (P &gt; 0.05). Thus, combined application of URP+SSP mixture (1:1) can safely be recommended in acid soils for short duration crops like maize and groundnut as against the more costly water soluble SSP fertilizer.</p> Debasis Sarangi Dinabandhu Jena Gour Hari Santra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-27 2020-05-27 53 64 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i530282 Isolation and Characterization of Bacteria Involved in Daniellia oliveri, Ficus sycomorus, Hymenocardia acida andTerminalia glaucescens Leaf Litter Decomposition and their Hydrolytic Enzyme Potentials http://www.journalijpss.com/index.php/IJPSS/article/view/30283 <p>The effect of microorganisms particularly those of bacteria on litter decomposition in the tropical savannahs of Adamawa Cameroon is poorly investigated. Litter decomposition was conducted in the field on the litter of <em>Ficus </em><em>sycomorus, Terminalia glaucescens, Daniellia oliveri,</em> and <em>Hymenocardia acida</em>, and the dynamic of bacterial populationas well as their enzymatic activity during degradation of leaf litters was studied. For this purpose, bacteria were isolated from the litterof these plants at the initial time (zero), 12 and 24 weeks of degradation by serial dilution method and spreading onto nutrient agar culture medium. Identification of bacteria was done under photonic microscope after Gram staining and the production of enzymes was carried out on specific media. Results indicate that: 25 bacteria were isolated from distinct phenotypic characteristics on nutrient agar. Based on morphological appearance as observed under light microscope, 24% of isolates were found to be single bacilli; 28% bacilli cluster; 16% were found to be streptobacilli and 32% diplococci. For sugar fermentation test (TSI), 20% of isolates produced gas and acidic reaction, 40% produced acidic butt reaction, while only 20% produced H<sub>2</sub>S gas ; 76% of isolates were positive to citrate utilization (SIM) test; 20% of isolates were positive to catalase production test, whereas only 20% of isolates were motile. The aforementioned study of phenotypic, microscopic and biochemical enabled identification of two genera: the genus <em>Bacillus</em> and the genus <em>Micrococcus</em> representing respectively 68 and 32% of the isolates. The genus <em>Bacillus </em>consisted of <em>Bacillus cereus</em> (41.17%, with 7 phenotypes), <em>Bacillus megaterium</em> (17.64%, with 3 phenotypes), <em>Bacillus subtilus</em> (35.29%, with 6 phenotypes) and <em>Bacillus</em> sp. (5.88%, with 1 phenotype). The genus <em>Micrococcus</em>re grouped 08 phenotypes. The relative abundance of isolates demonstrated that in all leaf litters and soils, there was a great diversity of bacterial isolates at the initial time and then a considerable decrease in this diversity during litters degradation. The genus <em>Bacillus</em> was generally dominant at all decomposition periods of different plant species. A total of 64% of bacteria isolates produced at least one enzyme. 36% of the isolates produced amylase, 56% produced cellulase, 40% produced esterase, 48% produced lipase, while 48 % of the isolates produced protease. This strong enzymatic activity of the isolated bacteria suggests their competences in the degradation process of leaf litter, and therefore, the interest in exploiting them in litter degradation units for an efficient production of organic fertilizer.</p> Grégoire Ndara Babe Steve Takoukam Toukam Jacob Tchima Massai Pale Maigari Albert Ngakou Adamou Ibrahima ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-28 2020-05-28 65 82 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i530283