International Journal of Plant & Soil Science <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Plant &amp; Soil Science (ISSN: 2320-7035)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/IJPSS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Plant &amp; Soil Science research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International Journal of Plant & Soil Science 2320-7035 Effects of Foliar Application of Indol Butyric Acid(IBA), Gibberellic Acid (GA3) and Zinc (Zn) on Yield and Quality of Tomato <p>The yield and quality of tomato largely depend on soil and climatic conditions and also on variety. Plant growth regulators function as chemical messengers for intercellular communication. In tomato, different growth regulators and zinc play a pivotal role in germination, root development, branching, flower initiation, fruiting, lycopene development, synchronization and early maturation, parthenocarpic fruit development, ripening, TSS, acidity, seed production etcetera. The field experiment was conducted at Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University Farm, Dhaka, Bangladesh during October 2017 to April, 2018 to evaluate the effect of foliar application of IBA, GA3 and Zn on yield and quality of tomato [1]. Single variety BARI Tomato-14 and foliar application of IBA 5 ml/L, GA3 5 ml/l and Zn were used to conduct this experiment. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) having three factors and replicated three times. Data were collected on chlorophyll content of leaf, number of flowers cluster per pant, number of fruit per plant, yield per hectare, Vitamin-C content and TSS% content. A statistically significant variation was recorded in terms of the above characters about yield and quality of tomato. All the characters shows maximum result in treatment of T<sub>7 </sub>(IBA+GA3+Zn).The treatment combination of T<sub>7</sub> (IBA 5 ml / L, GA3 5 ml / L and Zn 1 kg/ha) and T<sub>4 </sub>(IBA 5 ml / L, GA3 5 ml / L) gave the maximum yield (100.00 t/ha) and the minimum yield (39.75 t/ha) was found from the treatment combination on T<sub>0 </sub>(control). The highest Vitamin C content (113.10 mg/100 gm) and highest TSS (%) (7.000) were found from T<sub>7</sub> (IBA 5 ml / L, GA3 5 ml / L and Zn 1 kg/ha) than that of control under present experiment<em>.</em> So, it can be concluded that treatment combination of T<sub>7</sub> (IBA 5 ml / L, GA3 5 ml / L and Zn 1 kg/ha) is the best for yield and quality of tomato and can be tested further under different field conditions.</p> Md. Shoriful Islam Md. Ashabul Hoque Shamim Ara Sumi Mohammad Jony Kamrunnahar . Sarmin Akter Ranu Md. Shamsuzzaman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-13 2020-02-13 1 9 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i130230 Bio Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates against Diamond Back Moth (Plutella xylostella L.) on Cauliflower Plant in Tamil Nadu, India <p><em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> (<em>Bt</em>) gram positive entomopathogenic bacteria being an eco-friendly biopesticide. In present study the potential of <em>B. thuringiensis</em> isolates was studied for the biological control of Diamond back moth (DBM). Fifteen Bt isolates were obtained from the Department of Agricultural Microbiology, TNAU Tamil Nadu. This mainly isolated from the cultivated lands Cotton (<em>Gossypium hirsutum</em>), Brinjal (<em>Solanum melongena</em>) and Tomato (<em>Solanum lycopersicum</em>). All the 15 isolates were identified as <em>B. thuringiensis</em> based on the crystalline structure. Four different types of crystalline forms were observed, in which the isolates CC, CB1, BC, TD, BD were produces cuboidal shape crystals. Then, the isolates were characterized based on presence of lepidopteron specific cry gene. Among the 15 <em>B. thuringiensis</em> isolates seven of them were found to be positive for lepidopteron specific cry genes include cry 1 &amp; cry 2. Four <em>Bt</em> isolates were exhibited presences of both cry 1 and cry 2 genes. The selected 4 isolates further screened for protein profiling by SDS Page. Molecular weights of the protein ranging from 65 to 130 kDa. Toxicity of this four <em>B. thuringiensis</em> isolates were evaluated by bioassay using third instar larvae of the diamondback moth (<em>Plutella xylostella</em>) and isolate (CC) recorded maximum mortality of 95.33% comparable to standard strain HD1 98.31%. In quantitative bioassay, the LC<sub>50 </sub>for third instar larvae of <em>Plutella xylostella</em> was found to be least range 197.09 ppm with fiducial limits of 110.28 - 352.21 ppm respectively. Different concentration of the toxic protein (100, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 2000) will reduce the leaf damage and larval growth was (54-8% and 58-25%) observed. This achieved effective control of DBM in cauliflower plant.</p> S. S. Thilagavathi G. Prasad A. Ramalakshmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-13 2020-02-13 10 20 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i130231 Influence of Microdose of Mineral Fertilizer and Organic Manure on the Production of Groundnuts in Southern Benin <p>The use of mineral fertilizers improves crop production and soil productivity. However, its access remains limited to smallholder farmers. This study aim to assess the influence of microdose of mineral fertilizer and organic manure on the production of groundnuts. Field experience was carried out using Fischer design with five treatments and five replications: T control (Without organic matter and fertilizer); T0 recommended dose of mineral fertilizer (103.77 kg/ha or 0.93 g/poquet 15 days after sowing); T1 recommended dose of mineral fertilizer and organic matter (0.5 kg/m²); T2 microdose&nbsp; of mineral fertilizer (0.57 g NPKSB [14-23-14-5-1]&nbsp;15 days after sowing); T3 microdose of mineral fertilizer and organic matter (0.5 kg/m²). Linear mixed-effect models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the microdose of mineral fertilizer and / or organic manure had a significant effect on yield parameters such as aboveground biomass (fresh or dry), the number of nodules and the weight of the groundnuts pods (Prob &lt; 0.05). The treatment T2 (microdose of mineral fertilizer) increased grain yields (8.1±1.5 g/plant) compared to other treatments. Thus, the microdose of mineral fertilizer is economically more profitable than the recommended dose.</p> K. Sabaï E. L. Sossa N. F. Anago P. G. Tovihoudji T. O. Y. Chabi F. G. H. Kiki J. F. de-Souza C. E. Agbangba B. A. Sinsin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 21 28 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i130232 Effect of Swine Manure Amendment on Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+ Competitive Sorption onto Agricultural Soil <p><strong>Aims/Objectives:</strong> An agricultural tropical soil treated and untreated with swine manure was evaluated to Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+ competitive sorption dynamics.<br>Study Design: Metal ion mobility patterns were evaluated by sorption-desorption reactions with the mineral and organic matter soil phases.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Agronomic Institute of Parana (IAPAR) at Londrina city, Parana State, Southern Brazil, in an experiment conducted since June 2008.<br><strong>Methodology:</strong> Soybean and corn were growing up in the experimental area in summer and winter, respectively. Swine manure (SM) was applied twice a year, and the amount was calculated according each crop necessity. Experiments were in batch, varying the metal ion concentration<br>from 1.0 to 10 meq L−1. After equilibrium, the solid phase was analyzed by EDXRF and liquid phase by ICP-OES. Metal ion mobility was evaluated by applying the dual-mode Langmuir- Freundlich mathematical model, in addition to rate removal and Gibb’s free energy determination.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Sorption capacity increased after the SM amendment, and the retention sequence Pb2+&gt;Cu2+&gt;Zn2+&gt;Ni2+ was observed. The sorption capacity increased in 30%, 45%, 176%, and 231% for Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+, respectively. The relative intensity of the fluorescence emission lines showed metal ion sorption increased after the amendment, keeping the same sequence observed for the adjustable parameters from the fitting by dual-mode Langmuir- Freundlich model.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The possibility of a controlled release of micronutrients, considering low-affinity sorption sites, brings an excellent look to the swine manure amendment.</p> Danilo Bernardino Ruiz Leonel Vinicius Constantino Graziela Moraes de Cesare Barbosa Maria Josefa Santos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-18 2020-02-18 29 40 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i130233 The Effects of Neem Wood Ash on Soil Characteristics and Seedling Growth of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) <p>The burning of wood in industrial activities discharge a large amount of wood ash and affecting on the environment. The effects of neem (<em>Azadirachta indica </em>A. Juss.) wood ash on seedling growth of cowpea (<em>Vigna unguiculata</em> L. Walp.) was recorded. The data reveals significant (p&lt;0.05) effects of neem ash on the shoot length and seedling length of cowpea with the increase in the concentration of neem wood ash treatment up to 20%. The results also showed the significant (p&lt;0.05) decrease in leaf weight ratio of cowpea as the wood ash concentration increase in substrate as compared to without ash treatment (control).</p> <p>The effects of neem wood ash treatment on physical and chemical characteristics of soil including organic matter (%), pH of soil, calcium carbonate (%), chloride (meq/L), maximum water holding capacity (%) of soil, electrical conductivity (mS/cm), bulk density (g/cm<sup>3</sup>), sodium and potassium content (µg/g) content of soil was found. The wood ash produced changes in physical and chemical soil characteristic viz. organic matter (%), pH of soil, water content (%), calcium carbonate (%), chloride (meq/L), maximum water holding capacity (%), electrical conductivity (mS/cm), bulk density (g/cm<sup>3</sup>), sodium and potassium content (µg/g) content of soil.</p> <p>Wood ash treatment affected physical and chemical poperies of soil which in turn results decreased seedling growth performance of cow pea.</p> Sadaf Arshad Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Muhammad Shafiq Mohammad Athar Muhammad Kabir Zia-ur-Rehman Farooqi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-19 2020-02-19 41 50 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i130234 Influence of Humic Substances on Cucumber Seeds Storability and Root Rot Diseases Incidence under Salinity Conditions <p>Seed germination is a complex process, which is regulated by many factors including storage. The present study aims at assessing the validity of stored cucumber seeds under stressed-soil. <em>In-vitro</em> experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of soaking of stored cucumber (<em>Cucumis sativus</em> L.) seeds produced during three consequent years (2015, 2016 &amp; 2017) in five concentrations of humic substances (HS'c) solution (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 &amp; 1.5%) for five different intervals (30, 90, 150, 210 &amp; 270 min), on germination percentage (G%), germination velocity (GV) and vigor index (VI). Another In vitro experiment was conducted to assess the direct effect of HS'c on two nutritional media for <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em> and <em>Fusarium solani</em> mycelial growth, sclerotial productivity &amp; viability, conidia viability. Greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effect of soaking cucumber seeds in HS'c and spraying with salicylic acid (SA) (100 and 200mg L<sup>-1</sup>) twice on growth parameters of cucumber seedlings, and controlling the root rot disease caused by&nbsp;<em>R. solani</em> and <em>F. solani</em> under saline conditions (2.36, 4, 5 &amp; 6 dS m<sup>-1</sup>). The results indicate that T<sub>5</sub> (0.3% for 210 min.) for 2015 and 2017 and T<sub>4</sub> (0.3% for 150 min.) recorded the highest values for all studied parameters. No morphological changes were observed for the highest pathogenic two fungal isolate's mycelial growth on both fungal strains. <em>R. solani</em> was affected less than&nbsp;<em>F. solani</em> for the presence of different HS'c into nutrient media. 1.5% HS concentration had a reduction effect on the radical growth of fungal isolates, <em>R. solani</em> sclerotial production (30%) and viability (53%) and <em>F. solani </em>conidial viability (58%). Root rot disease was affected differently by seedling treatments of HS'c and/or SA under the four salinity conditions. The combined treatment; soaking seeds in 0.3% HS (for different period/year) and spraying seedlings with 200 SA had significantly reduced the disease incidence (DI) and disease index of both <em>R. solani</em> and <em>F. solani</em> specially in the lowest and highest salinity conditions.</p> Ahmed Abd El-Aziz Mahmoud Awad Hoda Mohamed Hussein Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-19 2020-02-19 51 73 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i130235 Assessment of Nutritional Status of Rainfed Rice in Benin Using Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) <p>The fertilizer used in Benin by rainfed rice farmers, doesn’t meet the required expectation because of lack of many essential agronomic information to formulate the appropriate nutrient compositions. Despite all the advances in improvement of rice production, its yields in traditional cropping systems are very low and the only inputs of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium do not effectively increase rice yields. The purpose of this study was to assess nutritional status of rainfed rice crops in Benin. The study covered the rainfed rice production areas of Benin Center where 72 leaves samples were taken on 3600 plants from the farmer fields. The concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc were determined in leaves samples. The preliminary DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System) norms for the rainfed rice growing in the Benin center were selected for various nutrient ratios obtained from the high yield population of the rainfed rice crop. The yields of the two subpopulations were significantly different (p &lt; .0001). The nutrient requirement for the rainfed rice production was ranked as N&gt; Fe&gt; Zn&gt;K&gt;Mg&gt;P&gt;Ca. The DRIS-derived sufficiency ranges for N, P, K, Ca and Mg from the nutrient indexing survey of the rainfed rice plants grown in Benin center were 1.91-3.66, 0.30-0.64, 2.00-3.89, 0.37-1.05 and 0.18-0.38g kg<sup>-1 </sup>respectively. The limits for Fe and Zn were 89.27-206.3 and 8.21-24.91 mg kg<sup>-1 </sup>respectively. On the basis of sufficiency ranges, 4.22, 57.75, 66.20, 56.34, 45.07, 46.50 and 29.57% of samples were low in N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn respectively. The DRIS norms put emphasis on nutrient balance and help to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy rice plants from the nutrition status. However, it needed further researches to determine the amount of the fertilizers to supply in order to maintain nutrient balance.</p> Firmin N. Anago Gustave D. Dagbenonbakin Brice T. C. Oussou Emile C. Agbangba Aliou Saidou Guillaume L. Amadji ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-22 2020-02-22 74 83 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i130236 Effect of Mulches on Soil Properties, Leaf Nutrient Status and Weed Growth of Pomegranate under Rainfed Conditions <p>The present study entitled "Effect of mulches on soil properties, leaf nutrient status and weed growth of pomegranate under rainfed conditions" at the experimental farm of HR&amp;TS and KVK Kandaghat at Jadari, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, during 2017-2018. The different mulches like Nylon mulch mat, Silver polyethylene mulch, Black polyethylene mulch, Red polyethylene mulch and Coir mulch mat, Grass mulch were used in this investigation. Results revealed that maximum soil temperature and moisture were recorded in black polyethylene mulch. Nylon mulch mat was found effective in controlling weed growth followed by silver polyethylene mulch and black polyethylene mulch. Soil and leaf nutrient content were significantly higher found under grass mulch. The soil hydrothermal regimes were significantly higher under black polyethylene mulch. This provides better prevention of soil water evaporation and retaining soil moisture under rainfed conditions.</p> Bhawna Kaushal D. D. Sharma M. A. Kuchay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-24 2020-02-24 84 91 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i130237 Physiological Adaptation and Plant Growth Promoting Functional Traits of Bacillus altitudinis FD48 under In vitro Osmotic Stress <p>To develop an osmotolerant microbe, as a bioinoculant to mitigate drought it is vital to understand the impact of osmotic stress on their growth and plant growth promoting functional traits. The present study was aimed to evaluate the physiological adaptations and plant growth-promoting traits of a phyllosphere bacterium <em>Bacillus altitudinis </em>FD48 under osmotic stress conditions. The FD48 strain isolated from rice (cultivar ADT43) phyllosphere obtained from Biocatalysts laboratory, Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.<em> In vitro</em> bioassay was conducted to evaluate the osmotolerant potentials of FD48. <em>B. altitudinis </em>FD48 grown in LB supplemented with PEG 6000 and grown for 48 hrs. Physiological adaptation to osmotic stress was observed by assessing the osmolytes and free amino acids content produced by FD48 under induced stress. Further the plant growth promoting traits under osmotic stress also asceratined. The growth pattern of FD48 strain decreased with the increase in PEG concentrations. The lower level of osmotic stress enhanced the growth of FD48 but at higher concentration exhibited a decline in growth. Enhanced levels of IAA (25 µg g<sup>-1 </sup>of protein) and EPS (9.76 mg mg<sup>-1 </sup>protein) production were recorded in the FD48 strain at lower levels of osmotic stress. Furthermore, an increase in osmotic stress had a deleterious effect on IAA production and ACC deaminase activity while the exopolysaccharide production was enhanced. Growth of FD48 under osmotic stress also increased the accumulation of proline and compatible sugars that will protect the FD48 strain by maintaining the turgor potential of cells and stabilizes the membrane proteins. Hence, the results of our study suggesting that, <em>B. altitudinis </em>FD48 strain has the potential to tolerate osmotic stress and might be used as a newer bio-inoculant for triggering moisture deficit stress resilience in plants.</p> Shobana Narayanasamy Sugitha Thankappan Sivakumar Uthandi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-27 2020-02-27 92 98 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i130238 Over-liming in the Construction of the Fertility of Red Yellow Latosol with Different Phosphorus Sources <p>The availability of P in Cerrado soils is a limiting factor for the satisfactory development of crops. It is known that the efficiency of phosphate fertilization is low and depends on several factors, such as solubility of fertilizers, soil texture, and soil acidity. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the availability of phosphorus as a function of different phosphate sources under the influence of pH, as well as to determine its fertilization efficiency in a red latosol. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at Tocantins federal university, in DIC, Brazil was used, in a 3 x 5 + 1 scheme. A red-yellow Latosol was used and three sources of phosphate fertilization were evaluated: Mono-ammonic phosphate - MAP, single superphosphate - SS and Natural phosphate - FN, plus one treatment without fertilization, in five evaluation periods (0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days). Therefore, the pH in CaCl<sub>2</sub> of the soil stabilized between (5.5 – 6.5) in approximately 83 days of incubation with the acidity concealer. The SS and MAP phosphate fertilizers promoted the highest available P contents, with 6.32 and 6.23 mg.d m<sup>−3</sup>, respectively. The use of FN showed low P levels during the evaluated incubation period, mainly due to its lower solubility.</p> Jessiane da Silva Carvalho Bruno Henrique Di Napoli Nunes João Henrique Silva da Luz Evandro Alves Ribeiro Hanrara Pires de Oliveira Gilson Araujo de Freitas Lara Couto Marques Gilson do Carmo Alexandrino Rubens Ribeiro da Silva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-29 2020-02-29 99 106 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i130239